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Effect of Freezing Conditions on PEM-FC Components

For mobile applications, performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs) should be maintained with being exposed to subzero temperatures in winter time. To simulate such a situation, a single cell PEM-FC was operated at 70{degree sign}C, stopped, kept at -10{degree sign}C for 8 h, and heated to 80{degree sign}C for the next operation. The cell was unable to work. The degradation was attributed to freezing of water present inside the MEA, produced during operation, and remained in the PEMFC after the operation.

Computer-aided morphological analysis for maxillo-facial diagnostic: a preliminary study

This article compares most of the three-dimensional (3D) morphometric methods currently proposed by the technical literature to evaluate their morphological informative value, while applying them to a case study of five patients affected by the malocclusion pathology. The compared methods are: conventional cephalometric analysis (CCA), generalised Procrustes superimposition (GPS) with principal-components analysis (PCA), thin-plate spline analysis (TPS), multisectional spline (MS) and clearance vector mapping (CVM).

Soft tissue diagnosis in maxillofacial surgery: A preliminary study on three-dimensional face geometrical features-based analysis

To obtain the best surgical results in orthognathic surgery, treatment planning and evaluation of results should be performed. In these operations it is necessary to provide the physician with powerful tools that can underline the behavior of soft tissue. For this reason, considering the improvements provided by the use of 3D scanners in medical diagnosis, we propose a methodology for analyzing facial morphology working with geometrical features. The methodology has been tested on patients with malocclusion in order to analyze the reliability and efficiency of the provided diagnostic results.

A morphological methodology for three-dimensional human face soft-tissue landmarks extraction: A preliminary study

Assessment of facial soft tissues could be implemented using only anatomical landmarks. These points are so significant in the medical context because are able to provide significant information about the human face morphology and dimensions. At present their detection and location is made by expert physicians using palpation. Even if this procedure normally provides reliable information, the reliability of the results is proportional to the expertise of the physician.

Nanosized Gold and Silver Spherical, Spiky, and Multi-branched Particles

Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have recognized a growing importance in chemistry, electronics, optics, physics, and biology in the last decades. The possibility of tuning their unique properties varying dimension and morphology widely extends the range of possible applications. Several innovative chemical routes have been investigated to design shape-controlled synthesis to combine high-yield production with controllable and repeatable morphology.

Rough surfaces with enhanced heat transfer for electronics cooling by direct metal laser sintering

Experimental evidences are reported on the potential of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) in manufacturing flat and finned heat sinks with a remarkably enhanced convective heat transfer coefficient, taking advantage of artificial roughness in fully turbulent regime. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where artificial roughness by DMLS is investigated in terms of such thermal performances. On rough flat surfaces, we experience a peak of 73 % for the convective heat transfer enhancement (63 % on average) compared to smooth surfaces.

Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nature-Like Spiky Particles for Piezoresistive Sensor Applications

Silver particles with spiky nanostructured morphologies have been obtained by two different wet-synthesis approaches. A detailed investigation was carried out into the synthesis parameters to tune the shape of the sample into desert-rose- and succulent-like particles. The first synthetic route was based on the reduction of silver nitrate by iron sulfate in the presence of maleic acid as anisotropic agent, whereas in the second method ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent and citric acid as the anisotropic agent.

Thick mesoporous TiO2 films through a sol-gel method involving a non-ionic surfactant: Characterization and enhanced performance for water photo-electrolysis

A method for the preparation of TiO2 thick films made of anatase nanocrystallites and featuring a mesoporous structure is described. Modification of a typical sol–gel synthesis that uses Titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) as precursor, through both the incorporation of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20) and the optimization of thermal treatments, allows to increase the thickness of each spin-coated layer, and to obtain by successive runs porous, transparent, homogeneous and crackless films with thickness up to 1.2 μm.

A sensor for direct measurement of small convective heat fluxes: Validation and application to micro-structured surfaces

A sensor for measuring small convective heat flows (<0.2 W/cm^2) from micro-structured surfaces is designed and tested. This sensor {exploits the notion of thermal guard and is purposely designed} to deal with metal samples made by additive manufacturing, {such as} direct metal laser sintering (DMLS).

Charge transport improvement employing TiO2 nanotube array as front-side illuminated Dye-sensitized Solar Cell photoanode

TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays with different lengths were fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil and free-standing NT membranes were detached by the metal substrate and bonded on the fluorine-doped tin oxide surface implementing an easy procedure. Morphology of the as-grown material and of the prepared photoanode was investigated by means of electron microscopy, deepening the investigation on the thermal treatment effect.